48V Club Car Battery Charger And Your On-Board Computer (OBC)

Link To 48V Club Car On-Board Computers (OBC): http://ow.ly/2fpv50u5CHn

If you own a 48V Club Car, this is a super important video that you’ll want to tune in to! Join Dave as he discusses everything you need to know about 48V Club Car Battery Chargers and OBC’s.

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Computer Terminals: Block Mode Versus Character Mode

In my previous article I discussed the history and emergence of computer terminals. To delve a little deeper let's look at the way they communicated with mainframe systems.

There were essentially two philosophies (or sometimes 'religions' may be a better description depending on who you talk to) that determined determined how a terminal communicated with a host system. These were the Block Mode or 'smart' devices and Character Mode , or 'dumb' devices and, just to confuse matters, there was also a class of terminal which could operate in either mode and readily switch between them.

So what were the differences between these two ideas? Essentially, when using a Block Mode terminal once the host system had set up the terminal screen display, the operator was able to enter data into 'Fields' on the screen without interacting with the host. When the operator had finished the terminal collected all the input and sent it back to host as a 'block' of data. On the other hand a Character Mode terminal had to consistently send and receive each and every keystroke and piece of data to and from the host system during normal operation.

The Character Mode terminal used the host system to do all validation of data that the operator entered. Each time a key was pressed the character code for that key was sent to the host system. Whatever the host processor was doing was interrupted so that it could process the character and the application then decide what action to take, and finally perform that action. This could be merely to echo the character back to the terminal or to act on one of the control characters that may have been sent.

Applications that use Character mode terminals required laboriously set up of the displays in a way that allowed the operator to make sense of them. This involved moving the cursor around the screen, turning character Attributes on and off and printing text on the screen. In these terminals everything happened at the current screen location of the cursor.

As a simple example consider the case where we want the operator to enter a customer number, validate this and display the name and address of a customer. Assuming we are using a VT100 terminal the host system would initially send the following data (note that data prefixed with Esc is an escape sequence , a special command used by terminals):

  1. Esc [2J : – clear the entire screen by
  2. Esc [H : – Locate the cursor at the top left hand side of the screen
  3. Esc [1m : – Turn on Bold to make the prompt stand out
  4. Customer No. : – Type the prompt for the operator to enter the data
  5. Esc [0m : – Turn off Bold
  6. Esc [0; 9 : – Move the cursor to the place we want to see the customer number

Once this is all done, the operator can type the customer number, as each character is typed the host is sent the character before it is displayed, and will echo it back to the terminal so that it shows up on the screen. Special characters such as backspace are used to allow some simple editing. Finally the Enter key indicates that the customer number is complete. At this point the host has what it needs to see if the customer exists and display the details of that customer by moving the cursor as above and printing the formatted information.

Obviously in a real world scenario the amount of screen configuration involved was significantly greater. It should be clear that a lot of work needed to be done at the host end for any useful application, and that a lot of developer time was required to create a host applications that worked with useful screens.

Block mode terminals had limited local intelligence and treated the screen as a window into a form. The form did not need to fit on the screen in one piece since the operator was able to move the off screen parts into view so that these could be accessed as required. Block mode terminals were able to have multiple pages into which data could be entered, or on which data could be displayed. The operator was able to move to different parts of the form and to different pages by issuing commands to the Terminal which were acted on locally. There was little or no host involved during the data entry phase.

Take the case of a Block Mode terminal such as an IBM 3279, used on older IBM mainframes such as the System 360. When interacting with this terminal the host would first send a block of data to the terminal that represented the form to be filled including a list characters that are legal within each of the fields.

Once the form was displayed on the screen the operator could fill in the fields and move around the form to any fields that could legally be accessed. This happened locally with no interaction required from the host. On completion of the data entry the operator pressed the 'Send' key. Only at that point was the data sent to the host as a block. The host then extracted the fields it is interested in, in our case the customer number, looked up the customer details and sent these to the terminal so that they can be displayed in the form at the appropriate location.

From the above it is clear that there was a lot more work for the host system when coupled with character based terminals in comparison to their Block Mode equivalent. The advantage of the Character Terminals is that they were much less expensive than the Block Mode equivalent, and as long as the total number of terminals connected was not too large it was a cost effective solution.

On the other hand Block Mode terminals have an advantage in that the load on the host was greatly reduced, and while the monetary cost of these terminals was greater, they used the expensive host processor much more sparingly. Block mode terminals were most cost effective solution in situations where there were many terminals connected to a host system.

There were advantages and disadvantages to both types of terminal and the situation in which the device was to be used dictated which was the best solution. Today, this argument is largely irrelevant as the advent of PC based Terminal Emulation software has led to disappearance of physical terminals and therefore any cost benefit argument. Terminal emulation software is now the application that will determined whether or not a Character or Block Mode terminal is to be used.


Slow and Sluggish Computer? The Complete Solution That Will Fix It Fast

If your computer has slowed to a crawl, then you have errors inside of the Windows registry, which is the central database that controls many of the functions on your computer. The best way to fix these errors is to use a registry cleaner. But, you must choose the best one, because if you do not, you could end up with more problems than before!

A good registry repair program will fix each invalid entry quickly and easily. This type of program will also backup your registry on a regular basis, in case there is a problem, your registry will be restored to its normal status. A registry repair program will also perform a complete system scan to find entries that are no longer necessary or were never needed in the first place. It also finds holes inside the registry, and other problems. It will perform defragmentation tasks and checkup on your system regularly. And you also want a program that not only rides your computer of registry errors, but also removes spyware, protects against viruses, and fixes outdated drivers.

In order for your computer to work at its optimum level, the registry and other components must be in good working order. Just one problem can slow your system down in a very big way. If you want to prevent registry problems, scan your computer regularly, keep spyware, adware and viruses away, and keep the P-C drivers working and updated, you need a complete software system to achieve your goals.


Computer Messenger Bags – How To Hang On To Them

If you have a computer messenger bag, you may have chosen the particular bag because a friend recommended it to you, it's popular and you like to be considered "hip and cool" when carrying your bag, or you are even trying to make a fashion statement. You may not, however, consider how important the safety features of your computer luggage.

Once you have purchased a computer bag and started using it, all its safety features will become evident. When you start using the bag to carry your computer around you will never want to carry it any other manner.

A very important safety feature that you will find is that the messenger bag that holds your computer will help protect it from any damage. That's because computer messenger bags are typically going to have padding inside of them. The padding will protect the computer from any damage resulting from it accidently being sat on or hit.

Another absolutely vital safety feature to consider is the quality of the carrying straps. Since these bags will typically have a strong carrying strap, it will be difficult for anyone to run by you and grab the bag from your arms. Since it will be difficult for someone to grab the computer off your arm and run, it will be almost impossible for it to be stolen.

Another important safety aspect of the bags is that they prevent a computer from slipping out of the case, thereby eliminating any damage to it from an accidental fall.

The prices of computer messenger bags can range from a little over $ 20 up to a $ 1,000, depending upon their style and the materials from which they are made. However, the great majority of these bags can be obtained for less than $ 100 at most department stores or purchased online. In addition to over-the-back computer messenger bags, there are also laptop bags and cases that also protect the computer from damage. They are also generally available at very reasonable cost.

Although design is always a consideration of the style-conscious, extremely safety factors must rule the day when selecting a computer messenger bag or even a laptop bag or case. A computer is valuable and confidential and must be kept safe from damage and theft. We depend upon them throughout the day – at the office, at home or at school. We must be able to transport them safely and hang on to them.

Copyright (c) 2011 Sandra Tiffany


Computer Accessories For Tablet PCs

All computers, no matter their use and functionality require some extra add-ons to make them user- friendly and enjoyable. In simple terms, these accessories modify a computer's utility. Use of add-ons makes work on the computer simple and enjoyable. This ease of use is thought about by the increased functionality adapted from using adornments. The common attachments in today's market are keyboards, mice, scanners, monitors amongst other add-ons.

Computer accessories augment the experience one gets from using his or her computer. Computers of today are more functional and have increased capabilities. This is as a result of technology advancement that has taken place in the past two decades.

The acceptance of tablet PCs bought about some additional components in the computer market. Slate and touchscreen tablets do not come with in-built keyboards. However, one can choose to buy an accessory keyboard and attach it. Computer manufactures provide accessory keyboards and mice for their touch tablets and slates.

Although there are some in-built computer accessories in some PCs, they are not of the required standards. More often than not, in-built accessories do not perform their required tasks to the expected levels. This is the reason why most computer users go out to buy additional accessories. In-built speakers often produce poor sound qualities, and this may force one to go buy better speakers.

Here are some factors to consider before purchasing computer accessories.

When going out to buy accessories one should always choose accessories that go with devices that they have. The best option of buying accessories is from the manufacturer of the computer.

Before you go out buying computer attachments from the Internet, you should consider some important factors. You should first conduct a thorough research to see the websites that offer the best prices and quality accessories. In some cases, one can buy a substandard accessory that can even spoil a computer. There are some retail stores that deal in accessories for computers and other devices, but at times, their prices are higher than those online stores and manufacturers. The best option remains to buy add-ons from the manufacturers.

Installation of accessories.

Installing attachments is not a hard task. Most of the additions come with a step by step manual guide for easy and correct installation process. These installation manuals come in the form of CD which provides the steps of installation. One should always read and follow these manuals so as install and use accessories in a correct manner.


Different Kinds of Computer Forensics Tools

The computer forensics tools are so useful in our daily life to enhance the security of the computer based stored data. By using the computer forensics tools we can determine the security flaws in the computer system that reduce our computer based security. There is a lot of tools of computer forensics that we can use in Windows and Linux based operating system to prevent these attacks. There are a lot of tools that can help us to control over the activities of computer based crimes. These description and features of these software are given below.

Different tools and Techniques

Live view software is best in the series of security in of computer forensics. It is a good source or utility that helps us to set virtual machine that exists in your current operating system without detecting the Workstation and VMware server tools. You can download it by using internet. Live View helps to us to create system investigation panel for safety of data of computer without disturbing the installed softwares of the current operating system. You can also use other software like VMware to create virtual machine disk (vmdk) to handle with latest versions of server machines.

Secondly the best software to control the computer forensics is HijackThis. This software handles the registry to remove errors and malware to keep registry clean and clear. Every time when you restart your computer this software use your default setting to restore the previous state of your data and windows installed files. This software is a kind of computer back up tools to restore the previous state of your computer.

Third trick, another tools of computer forensics is Openfile View, this tool usually available in Linux based operating system, not in windows based as default. In Linux you can use the lsof command by sampling in the UNIX mode. It enlists the all process and executable files those run on a particular computer, it may be offline or online process (closed process and continue process).

Forth one is Wireshark. By using this software, you can monitor the all network traffic while moves in and out of computer. It is totally based on network monitoring computer forensics tools.

At the end, Helix 3 helps us to perform Linux based forensics inquiry. It helps us to examine the disk tools to know about the recent changing in the computer based files and application. It is someone use our computer to perform some illegal tasks then this software help us about what is done in absence.


A Brief History of Computer Terminals

Compared to modern devices like the iPhone and iPad the very first computers seem very archaic indeed. They were large, often requiring huge custom built rooms to house them, they were delicate, needing large air conditioners and constant cooling to remain operational, and they were slow. The earliest systems could handle only a single job at a time and programs needed to be fed directly into the system through punch cards, magnetic or paper tape.

As computer systems evolved and became more capable efforts were made to make more effective use of the available computing power. Operating systems and technologies were developed that allowed multiple users to access the host system from a comfortable location both simultaneously and interactively. One of those technologies was the computer terminal.

Computer terminals were devices typically consisting of a cathode ray display tube and a keyboard that was used to interact with a host system. Early terminals were referred to as ‘Green Screens’ thanks to the very common monochrome phosphor display screens sported by the majority of terminal screens. Another common nickname was ‘Dumb Terminal’ in reference to the fact that all processing was handled by the host system and the actual terminals could do almost nothing for themselves. In fact, the host computer needed to constantly check the connection to the terminal to determine whether there had been any input from the user. This placed a large load on the main processing unit with much valuable computing time spent doing the rounds of the terminals; 40% of available computer time was not unheard of. The larger the installation, the more users and terminals, the more time was wasted.

To overcome this problem ‘Smart’ terminals were introduced along with dedicated IO (input/output) processing units. Smart terminal were so named for their ability to handle some relatively simple processing locally such as validation of user input fields and the ability to allow the user to move around a form adding data. When the user had completed the form the terminal would send back the results of the user input to the host as a block of data. These smart terminals are also called ‘block mode’ terminals.

System manufacturers soon realized that they could be more profitable by making their products unique and locking customers into their own product range. The net result was that each manufacturer had its own range of terminals which were largely incompatible with anyone else’s host system. The purchase of a particular mainframe computer system required the purchase of compatible terminals from the same manufacturer. As a consequence of this during the 1960s and onwards there existed a relatively large number of different computer companies each with their own unique and incompatible terminals.

However the end of the 1970s saw the reversal of this trend and the development of more standardized and general purpose machines from some of the computer industry’s newer players, most notably Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). These machines used a standard serial connection along with standardized sets of characters and ‘escape sequences’, (commands were used to determine the text formatting, layout, and other display options on a terminal). This made it much simpler for other manufacturers to connect terminals and equipment to a host system.

Thanks largely to this openness and the size of the market that existed for terminals a number of companies emerged whose only business was to produce terminals for connection to host systems manufactured by others. These companies created terminals that could connect to any number of the available systems on the market and often had functionality that made them a cross between dumb and smart terminals without the costs of the latter. Terminals from manufacturers such as Televideo sported highly desirable and unique functionality that software developers took advantage of to enhance their own applications. In doing so software became dependent on hardware again, although in this case the terminal rather than the the host system. (Software could be run on different host systems so long as the application was able to be ‘ported’).

Finally, in the modern era the computer terminal has now almost entirely been replaced by the ubiquitous and multi functional PC. In the early days of the PC it was common to find a PC literally sitting alongside a computer terminal on the desk of the user. However it did not take long for this very poor use of valuable desk space and the duplication of investment in the PC and the Terminal to become an issue. The solution to this problem came in the form of a program that ran on the PC and mimicked the function of the terminal, the Terminal Emulator.

Terminal Emulation software put an end to the expense of purchasing and maintaining terminals, with their narrow and specialized functionality. Through a Terminal Emulator users are able to access host systems directly from their PC. Terminal Emulator software replicates the functionality and behavior of multiple terminal types and is available in versions which run a variety of devices found in the modern workplace, for example a hand held computer, a mobile phone or even through a web browser. In many cases Terminal Emulation software integrates with word processors, spreadsheets, email and so on, dramatically reducing the cost of host access while enhancing capability and presenting the end user with a familiar and modern interface to older technology.


Your Computer Can not Keep Time

A computer needs a certain amount of information to operate; for example, the date and time, the amount of memory installed, the number of drives and their configuration, and so on. In the early days of computers, either the user typed in this information each time the computer started, or it was set using DIP switches and jumpers. Today, computers store this information in a CMOS chip that uses a small battery to retain the information when the computer is shut off.

CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) is type of chip that consumes very little power; therefore, while the computer is turned off, the battery discharges very slowly. But the battery will totally discharge if you leave your computer turned off for a year or so. Even if you turn your computer on every day, the battery is designed to last only a couple of years. Occasional a battery will fail prematurely.

Today's plug-and-play computers can detect most of the necessary settings, but if your CMOS battery is dead, your computer will not be able to retain the date and time. The computer will also lose any custom settings, for example, the boot sequence. If you set a password in CMOS, you may be locked out of the computer. If the CMOS battery does fail, you may receive the message "System Configuration Lost" when you start the computer. It would be wise to record all the CMOS settings as a precaution.

To record the CMOS settings, watch for an on-screen prompt when you first start your computer. The prompt tells you to press a key, usually the Del or F2, to enter CMOS. To enter the CMOS configuration utility, you have to press the indicated key while the message is on the screen. After the CMOS configuration screen appears, follow the instructions provided to page through all the screens and record all the settings.

If your computer loses its time setting overnight, the CMOS battery may not be holding a charge. The CMOS battery is located inside the case on the motherboard. Changing the battery is usually a job for a computer technician. In fact, a layman might not even be able to find the battery.

If you want to locate the CMOS battery in your computer, be aware that a static discharge from your hands can damage components inside the case. After taking proper precautions, open the case and look on the motherboard for a battery. If you have a diagram of your motherboard, locate the battery on the diagram first.

Different motherboards use different types of batteries. The battery may be shaped like a barrel or a coin. Some motherboards use a component that resembles a chip which contains the CMOS and the battery (made by DALLAS or Benchmarq). Batteries come in different voltages, so make sure you get an exact replacement.

Sometimes the battery is mounted in a holder. Sometimes it is soldered to the motherboard. De-soldering and re-soldering a battery is usually a job for a computer technician. An inexperienced solder can cause a lot of damage. If you want to try to do it yourself, first practice on an obsolete circuit board. You may change your mind.

If the CMOS battery has failed because it's too old, this might be an opportunity to upgrade your motherboard. When upgrading a motherboard, the most important considerations are to make sure the new motherboard is the correct form factor for your case, and that the new motherboard has the correct bus connector slots for your expansion boards.

Copyright (C) Bucaro TecHelp

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Computer Rental – A Competitive Market

The quality of computer rental service varies from company to company, and I would say, from location to location. Computer rental service providers in Melbourne really matter when it comes to this kind of online service providing business.

Computer rental service providers offer rentals of different technologically advanced items such as notebooks, monitors, LCD projectors, scanners, printers, desktop computer units, audio visual products and many more. There are two kinds of rental provisions: (a) short term rental and (b) long term rental. The time span of rental depends on the clients on which suits them best. The mentioned rental provisions also vary in price, as much as every item to be rented. This kind of service providing space works by providing computer or audio visual equipment to the people who are in need of the equipment, most of the time, for emergency reasons. The service, of course, is for a reasonable fee. Most of rental companies such as those located in Melbourne are operating online. This is because operating online is proven effective and a sales generating business strategy. Aside from exposing your business worldwide, you get more potential customers 24 hours per day and 7 days a week because a website never sleeps.

Most of the Melbourne computer rental companies have been operating for several years already despite the competitive market they are in. The mere fact that a company survives for several years is already an indication that such company must have served its clients very well. It is already a common thought that the longer the company exists, the more reputable and reliable it is in terms of providing quality and customer-satisfying computer rental service.

There are a lot of business strategies to survive. Some gives incentives in different forms to attract more customers. Some also gives a little bit cheaper prices of rental items in which the difference matters in cents only. Big companies that offer computer rental services have fixed prices. However, small and medium ones offer negotiable prices. The final price would be the one that is agreed by two parties (the rental provider and the customer).

The companies of this kind usually get the equipment they have for rents from dealers at a rate in wholesale. The rental services cover equipment customization, installation and dismanting, shipping to the item to the customers if in case they are from very far places. The shipping though may be done with extra charges to be paid by the customers.

Assistance in the operation of particular equipment is also provided by the computer rental company. They send out a person or a team to help the customer set everything up.

To recap the price issue, rental companies usually base the price of every equipment item according to its quality and length of time for that item to be rented. The payments can be made through checks or credit cards. Money order would also be accepted as a form of payment; but nowdays, this method of payment is already seldom.


Fix Windows Computer Errors Fast

Overheating: For a CPU that is overheating, you may check the PC health section of your BIOS. A healthy CPU fan generally runs at about 3000 to 5000 RPMS. You may also want to check your power supply and video card fan. A fan may be repaired by cleaning it (removing and unclogging dirt on its blades).

Computer memory: Widows typically detects a problem with your computer's memory and may start the memory diagnostics tool automatically. However, if you suspect that there is a problem with your memory and wish to start diagnostics manually, go to the memory diagnostic tool, which is under , Control Panel> System and Maintenance> Administrative tools . You will be prompted to choose whether to run the program on restart or restart and run later.

Errors on your Hard Drive: To check for errors on your Hard Drive, go to My Computer , right click on the drive, and click Properties> Tools and then click Check Now … You may choose automatically fix file system errors for a more thorough scan.

Outdated or poorly programmed device drivers: When your computer seems to predictably crash when you perform certain tasks such as play games, watch movies or plug-in certain hardware such as a joystick, the drivers associated to that task may have a problem. The first thing is to check for compatibility. Check if the drivers you installed meant for your version of Windows.

Corrupt files and programs: Corrupt files may also present problems in your system. A corrupt file is sometimes created when there is interference when you try to

The quickest way to find a problem is to always start with the most obvious cause. Generally speaking, hardware malfunctions are usually the most obvious and easiest to fix. Secondly, check if there is a pattern for the "crashes", especially if you have encountered several "crashes" before. For example, you may find that your computer tends to crash when you are watching movies; this may indicate a problem with your graphics card drivers.

What causes a computer crash?

A computer crash is a condition where a computer's application and or operating system ceases to function properly and exists, due to a malfunction in the execution of the machine instruction. The most commonly known computer crash is arguably the "Blue Screen of Death". These crashes sometimes occur at the least convenient time, like when you are about to finish an assignment or report, not to mention the time wasted when you try to restore the system.